1.6 Power system

Electricity consumption in Finland totalled 86.1 (87.5) terawatt hours in 2019. Fingrid transmitted a total of 68.7 (68.6) terawatt hours of electricity in its grid, representing 76.0 (75.4) per cent of the total transmission volume in Finland (consumption and inter-TSO).

The electricity import and production capacity was sufficient to cover the peak consumption during the year. The peak in electricity consumption, 14,542 (14,062) MWh/h was reached on Monday 28 January 2019 between 8 and 9 a.m., with Finland’s electricity production contributing 10,978 MWh/h and the remaining 3,564 MWh/h being imported. The area price of electricity on the day-ahead market in Finland was €70.05/MWh during the peak consumption hour.

On the Nordic level, water resources were at a normal level, leading to lower wholesale prices for electricity in the Nordic countries compared to the previous year. This was reflected in the high volumes of electricity imported from the Nordic countries. Electricity transmissions between Finland and Sweden consisted mostly of large imports to Finland. In 2019, 16.3 (14.5) terawatt hours of electricity was imported from Sweden to Finland, and 0.5 (1.0) terawatt hours was exported from Finland to Sweden. In the electricity transmission between Finland and Estonia, exports to Estonia amounted to 3.8 (2.4) terawatt hours. Imports from Estonia amounted to 0.3 (0.9) terawatt hours. Electricity transmission from Russia to Finland amounted to 7.5 (7.9) terawatt hours. In 2019, 0.2 (0.2) terawatt hours of electricity was imported from Norway to Finland, and 0.1 (0.1) terawatt hours was exported from Finland to Norway.

Nearly the full transmission capacity was available in all cross-border connections during the review period. The electricity transmission was steered by the markets and the hourly transmission direction varied according to the current market situation. The price differences between the Nordic countries in 2019, which were large at times, resulted mainly from a different electricity production structure. Area prices between Finland and Sweden diverged in situations where the transmission capacity between the countries was insufficient to meet the demand for electricity. 

In 2019, there was no need to raise Fingrid’s preparedness for disturbance clearing. The transmission reliability rate remained at an excellent level and transmission realiability rate was 99.9998 (99.9999) per cent. An outage in a connection point in the grid caused by a disturbance in Fingrid’s electricity network lasted an average of 4.3 (12.0) minutes, which is equal to the ten-year average. The calculated cost of the disturbances (regulatory outage costs) to consumer customers was only EUR 2.7 (1.5) million. If quick reconnections are included, the cost of disturbances amounts to EUR 5.2 million. 

The reliability and usability of DC connections were at a good level in 2019. There was one long-lasting disturbance on the EstLink 2 connection, which began in late December and ended in early January 2020. The number of disturbances and the total duration of disturbances were on the same level as in 2018 for DC connections. 

The volume of transmission losses in the grid increased somewhat from the level of the previous year, amounting to 1.3 (1.2) terawatt hours. This was 1.5 (1.3) per cent of the total volume of transmitted electricity. The annual variation of losses is affected by the Nordic electricity production situation, such as the volume of hydropower. Losses have been minimised by keeping the voltage of the transmission grid as high as possible and by making grid investments and equipment procurements that promote energy efficiency.  

Counter trade Jan-Dec/19 Jan-Dec/18 July-Dec/19 July-Dec/18
Counter-trade between Finland and Sweden, €M 0.1 1.9 0.0 1.8
Counter-trade between Finland and Estonia, €M 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.0
Counter-trade between Finland's internal connections, €M 0.3 2.2 0.2 2.1
Total counter-trade, €M 0.9 4.1 0.4 3.9
         

Reserves required to maintain the power balance of the power system were procured from Finland, other Nordic countries, Estonia and Russia. The availability of reserves was good, with the exception of the spring floods, which limited the availability of hydropower plants to reserve maintenance. Consumption is increasingly active in participating in the frequency containment reserve for disturbances. Countertrade costs arise from, among other things, transmission grid disturbances and problems. Countertrade refers to special adjustments made in the management of electricity transmission which are used to eliminate short-term bottlenecks (congestion in electricity transmission caused by the transmission grid). In addition to this, Fingrid guarantees the cross-border transmission capacities between countries it has confirmed by carrying out countertrades, i.e. purchasing and selling electricity, up until the end of the 24-hour usage period. The need for countertrade can arise from, for example, power plant failures or power outages or disruptions in the transmission grid. Countertrade costs amounted to only EUR 0.9 (4.1) million.

Power system operation Jan-Dec/19 Jan-Dec/18 July-Dec/19 July-Dec/18
Electricity consumption in Finland TWh 86.1 87.5 41.5 42.2
Inter TSO transmission in Finland, TWh 4.4 3.5 2.3 2.0
Transmission within Finland, TWh 90.5 90.9 43.7 44.2
Fingrid's transmission volume TWh 68.7 68.6 34.0 33.9
Fingrid's electricity transmission to customers, TWh 64.2 64.9 31.7 31.8
Fingrid's loss energy volume TWh 1.3 1.2 0.7 0.6
Electricity transmission Finland - Sweden        
Exports to Sweden TWh 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.5
Imports from Sweden TWh 16.3 14.5 9.2 7.0
Electricity transmission Finland - Estonia        
Exports to Estonia TWh 3.8 2.4 2.1 1.4
Imports from Estonia TWh 0.3 0.9 0.1 0.3
Exports to Norway TWh        
Exports to Norway TWh 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
Imports from Norway TWh 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
Electricity transmission Finland - Russia        
Imports from Russia TWh 7.5 7.9 3.3 4.4