4.3 Formation of turnover and financial result

Turnover consists of the following:

Liikevaihto 2018
1. TURNOVER, €1,000 2019 2018
Grid service revenue 385,031 423,151
Sales of imbalance power 346,749 383,837
Cross-border transmission income 11,608 35,516
ITC income 14,429 13,089
Peak load capacity 14,111 14,032
Other operating incom 17,427 18,160
Total 789,356 852,784

Grid service income mainly consists of the unit price for electricity transmission multiplied by the volume. The Energy Market Authority approves the pricing structure for grid services, on the basis of which Fingrid sets the unit prices for electricity transmission during the winter period and for consumption during other times. The winter period begins on 1 December and ends on the last day of February. Fingrid additionally charges fees for output from and input into the grid, and power generation capacity fees. Fingrid seeks to set the unit prices for electricity transmission each autumn for the next year, for one year at a time. Within the framework of grid services, a customer obtains the right to transmit electricity to and from the main grid through its connection point. Grid service is agreed by means of a grid service contract signed between a customer connected to the main grid and Fingrid. 

Each electricity market party must ensure its electricity balance by making an agreement with either Fingrid or some other party. Fingrid buys and sells imbalance power in order to stabilise the hourly power balance of an electricity market party (balance responsible party). Imbalance power trade and pricing are based on a balance service agreement with equal and public terms and conditions.

Fingrid is responsible for the continuous power balance in Finland at all times by buying and selling balancing power in Finland. The balance responsible parties can participate in the Nordic balancing power market by submitting bids on their available capacity. The terms and conditions of participation in the balancing power market and the pricing of balancing power are based on the balance service agreement.

Transmission services on the cross-border connections to the other Nordic countries enable participation in the European day-ahead and intraday markets. Fingrid offers electricity transmission service from Russia through its 400 kV cross-border connections. The transmission service is intended for fixed electricity imports and it is based on Fingrid’s agreements with the Russian TSO and system operator. The technical terms of the cross-border power lines are defined in the Intersystem Agreement, the operational terms in the Operation Agreement, measurement terms in the Agreement of Electricity Metering and Accounting and the commercial terms are specified in the Agreement of Capacity Allocation. The Customer and Fingrid agree on the terms of the electricity transmission in a transmission service agreement, which is based on the agreements mentioned above. The contractual terms are equal and public. ITC compensation is, for Fingrid, income and/or costs which the transmission system operator receives for the use of its grid by other European transmission system operators and/or pays to other transmission system operators when using their grid to serve its own customers. 

The peak load capacity secures the supply security of electricity in situations of the Finnish power system where the planned electricity procurement is not sufficient to cover the anticipated electricity consumption. The peak load capacity system is a special task assigned to Fingrid by the Finnish Energy Authority, based on the Peak Load Capacity Act (117/2011, Act on peak load capacity which secures a balance between electricity production and consumption). The Energy Authority submits the peak load capacity plants for competitive tendering, and Fingrid manages the peak load capacity service as required by the Act. The peak load capacity can consist of both power plants and facilities capable of adjusting their electricity consumption.

2. OTHER OPERATING INCOME, €1,000 2019 2018
Rental income 650 831
Capital gains on fixed assets 2,713 8,276
Contributions received 290 186
Other income 568 1,506
Total 4,221 10,800
Liikevaihto ja liiketoiminnan tulos

 Accounting principles

Revenue recognition

Sales recognition takes place on the basis of the delivery of the service. Electricity transmission is recognised once the transmission has taken place, and balance power services are recognised on the basis of the delivery of the service. Indirect taxes and discounts, etc., are deducted from the sales income when calculating turnover.

IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers

The fundamental principle of the IFRS 15 standard is that sales revenue should be recognised when control over the goods or the service is transferred to the customer.
A five-step process should be applied when recognising sales revenue:
• Identify the customer contract(s) 
• Identify the individual performance obligations
• Determine the transaction price according to the contract 
• Allocate the transaction price to individual performance obligations, and 
• Recognise revenue when each performance obligation is met.

Sales recognition takes place on the basis of the supply of the service. Electricity transmission is recognised once the transmission has taken place. Balance power services are recognised on the basis of the delivery of the service. Fingrid has defined the performance obligations related to each agreement, and revenue recognition has been examined separately for each performance obligation. When determining the extent to which a performance obligation is met, a single method should be applied for all performance obligations to be met over time. Connection agreements are long term and can be terminated, at the earliest, 15 years from the date when they entered into force. If a customer does not receive an individual item of goods or a service against the connection fee, this must be recognised as revenue in the same way as the other revenue according to the contract, generally over the contract term. 

 Judgements and estimates

Estimate of the purchase and sale of imbalance power

The income and expenses of imbalance power are ascertained through a nationwide imbalance settlement procedure, which is based on the Ministry of Employment and Economy’s 9 December 2008 decree on the disclosure obligation related to the settlement of electricity delivery. The final imbalance settlement is completed no later than 13 days from the delivery month, which is why the income and expenses of imbalance power in the financial statements are partly based on preliminary imbalance settlement. The estimate is based on the preliminary imbalance settlement information provided by the imbalance settlement. For foreign balances, the calculations have been verified with the foreign counterparties.

Inter-Transmission System Operator Compensation (ITC)

Compensation for the transit transmissions of electricity has been agreed upon through an ITC (Inter-Transmission System Operator Compensation) agreement. The centralised calculations are carried out by ENTSO-E (the European Network of Transmission System Operators of Electricity). ITC compensation is determined on the basis of the compensation paid for use of the grid and transmission losses. The ITC calculations take into account the electricity transmissions between the various ITC agreement countries. ITC compensation can represent both an income and a cost for a transmission system operator. Fingrid’s share of the ITC compensation is determined on the basis of the cross-border electricity transmissions and imputed grid losses. ITC compensation is invoiced retroactively after all parties to the ITC agreement have approved the invoiced sums. Control is carried out monthly. This is why the uninvoiced ITC compensations for 2019 have been estimated in the financial statements. The estimate has been made using actual energy border transmissions in Finland and unit compensations, which have been estimated by analysing the actual figures from previous months and data on grid transmissions during these months.